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In Turkey, the current law pertaining to the protection of patent rights is Decree-Law 551 which is in force as from June 27, 1995. Patentability criteria are world-wide novelty, inventive step and industrial applicability. For utility models, inventive step is not required and inventions on processes and chemicals are excluded in Turkey.

 

Turkey has become a party to the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) on July 7, 1995 and PCT has started being applied forTurkey as from January 1, 1996. Being effective as of January 29, 2000, Turkey has also become a signatory of the European Patent Convention (EPC).

 

 

National Patent / Utility Model Applications in Turkey

Upon submission of the required documents, a patent / utility model application can be filed in Turkey and a protection can be obtained with duration of 20 years for examined patents, 7 years for unexamined patents and 10 years for utility models. However, processes and chemical inventions can not be protected by utility models. Where the (substantive) examination request is made within the period of 7 years and the patent granted after such (substantive) examination is conducted, the term of the patent shall be completed to 20 years as of the date of filing the application in Turkey.

 

Depending on an examination on formal terms of application, the Turkish Patent Institute conducts novelty searches and substantive examinations on patents falling under certain International Patent Classifications. The TPI also has agreements with various searching/examining authorities such as Swedish, Danish, Russian, European Patent Office and Austria authorities at present for these tasks. It is up to the applicant of a Turkish case to choose the desired authority.  Subject to an additional fee, only the Austrian Patent Office performs accelerated searches/examinations. 

 

PCT National Phase Entries in Turkey

A PCT application in the National Phase can be filed in Turkeyupon completion of the required documents. PCT applications entering into national phase are not subject to search procedure since International Search Reports are readily accepted by the T.P.I. After expiration of the 30-month period, Turkish translation may be filed within a month by paying an additional fee. The entry into national phase may be made belatedly within 3 months following the end of 30-month period, upon payment of the official filing fee with a fine.

 

Applications entering into national phase in Turkey under Chapter II are automatically prosecuted according to patent system with (substantive) examination whereas for applications entering into national phase in Turkey under PCT Chapter I, applicant has the option to choose either of the patent systems.

 

 

Validation of European Patents in Turkey

All the processes about the European patent application (examination of the structure, search, publication, investigation, registration decision and opposition) are executed by European Patent Office (EPO).

 

European Patent Validation affords the same level of legal protection as a national patent; if it is filed in the designated countries within 3 months from the mention of the grant decision on the European Patent Bulletin and it is valid for 20 years as from the filing date.

 

A granted European Patent can be validated in Turkey with a single application and registration procedure, upon translation of the specification into Turkish and submission of the other requirements

 

Moreover, it is possible to enable the European Patent application to have effect with regard to third parties within Turkey, by submitting Turkish translation of the claims to the Turkish Patent Institute during the application stage of the European Patent which are to be published in the official bulletin. 

 

Other Services

As patents are a statutory monopoly given to the holders conferring exclusive rights and play a significant role in strategies of any company, following steps are recommended for the registration of patents in Turkey:

 

1. Patent Search

Please Contact Us for a free search among all patents published and registered by the Turkish Patent Institute and get information about their possibilities of being registered regarding the registration criteria.

 

2. Filing of a Patent / Utility Model 


Once all the required documents have been provided and the Turkish translation of the specification has been prepared by your patent attorney, the application will be filed to the Turkish Patent Institute.

 

Please Contact Us for detailed information about our costs. We ensure you that none of our services to be provided will cost beyond of your expectations.

 

3. Prosecution of patents

After formal examinations of the Turkish Patent Institute, the application is published in Turkish Patent Bulletin within 18 months as of relevant filing date for opposition purposes. Validated European patents are published within 1-2 months upon filing thereof. As the following stages depend upon type of chosen route, please see conventional patent or utility model, EP validation, PCT national phase entry sections for further details.

 

Required Documents

 

Filing a national patent / utility model application

  • - Name, address and nationality of the applicant(s) and inventor(s)
  • - Patent Specification in Turkish consisting of description, claims, figures (if any) and abstract (not exceeding 100 words)
  • - Power of attorney 

 

Filing Entry into National Phase of a PCT Application

 

  • - A copy of the Publication of the International Application or the number of the international publication
  • - A copy of the International Search Report
  • - A copy of the International Examination Report
  • - Patent Specification (preferably in English) to be translated into Turkish at our end
  • - Power of Attorney

Filing Validation of a European Patent:

 

Full Protection

  • - Name, address and nationality of the applicant(s) and inventor(s)
  • - A copy of the Publication of the European Patent Application (B1)
  • - Patent Specification (preferably in English) to be translated into Turkish at our end

 

Provisional Protection

  • - Name, address and nationality of the applicant(s) and inventor(s)
  • - Date and number of the EP application
  • - The claims, abstract and drawing(s) (if any) (preferably in English) to be translated into Turkish at our end

Priority document or its translation is not required when filing a PCT national phase application or EP national validation in Turkey. 

In Turkey, the current law pertaining to the protection of trademarks is Decree-Law 556 which is in force as from June 27, 1995. This has brought the modern provisions such as protection of service marks, absolute and relative grounds for refusal, publication of the applications and opposition by third parties, infringement procedures and compensation of damages against infringement, establishment of special courts. Beside of registrability of trademarks owned by multi-proprietors, The Decree Law 556 has provided the registration of guarantee and collective marks.

 

Turkey has also become a party to the Protocol relating to the Madrid Agreement concerning the International Registration of Marks as of January 01, 1999 with the decision of Council of Ministers. The international trademark registrations under the Madrid Protocol can be extended to Turkey and filed from Turkey as from the effective date.

 

On June 01, 2002, a new classification system according to the international classification of goods and services has been accepted and the service class 42 has been limited by creation of new service classes 43, 44, and 45 which consist eliminated items of class 42.

 

Trademark Search in Turkey

 

A comprehensive trademark search in Turkey will provide you to determine pre-registered trademarks in use which are the same or confusingly similar with yours and registered for the same goods and/or services with the range of your interests, in another way of saying, which may be owned by the companies or individuals acting in the same field with you.

Searches conducted through the present databases available on internet are risky and insufficient as any of their contents cover recently filed and/or published trademarks. Besides, in order not to come across unpleasant surprising situations we recommend you not to file a trademark application in Turkey on the basis of a search conducted by ones unaware of changes in classification systems of Turkey in the past.

 

Trademark Registration in Turkey

 

For trademark application in Turkey, estimated costs are based on the number of classes to be requested and oppositions filed by third parties during publication and/or any official rejection during official examination of TPI’s Trademark examiner. As to our charging policy, we do charge our clients reasonably, depending on the substantive valuable services provided, not for incidental telephone inquiries or requests for quotations… Reporting out official actions, reminding due dates, recording information into our databases are also free of charge and we let you know about upcoming costs and wait for your instructions before we take any step. For learning estimated costs and more, please Contact Us and informed by our foreign department staff who will be pleased to be of assistance

 

 

Trademark Renewal in Turkey

The term of protection of a registered trademark is ten years from the filing date and it is renewable for periods of ten years in Turkey. An application for renewal in Turkey must be filed during the last 6 months preceding the expiration of the protection period. If an application is not filed within the above mentioned six month period, the mark may still be renewed within the 6 months following the expiration date, by paying a fine.

 

In the case of termination of the protection of a trademark for failure of renewal, another identical or similar trademark application covering identical or similar goods or services shall be refused where an objection is raised in the period of two years. Therefore, the grace period of two years is defined as a kind of priority right for the trademark holders to re-file their lapsed trademark by filing a new trademark application in Turkey.

 

Trademark Watch in Turkey

The only way to prevent the registration of the same or similar application with the registered trademark is carrying out “Trademark Watch in Turkey” on the published marks which will protect you through opposition proceedings before they are registered.

 

We are at your entire disposal for inquiries you may require while proceeding on this subject. Please  Contact Us  our professional staff for more information and guiding regarding trademark watch service in Turkey. 

Required Documents For Filing A Trademark Application

 

  • - Name and address of the applicant;
  • - Sample of the mark (not exceeding 70 x 70 mm);
  • - List of goods and services according to  Nice Agreement;
  •  

The Power of Attorney, simply signed/executed by the applicant, notarization or legalization is not required (Legalization of the Power of Attorney is only required for actions such as voluntary cancellation, withdrawal, recordal of changes, or deletion of goods);

 

For the trademark applications in Northern Cyprus Turkish Republic, the power of attorney must be legalized with apostil if the applicant is not residing at Northern Cyprus.

 

  • - If it is a collective mark, Collective Mark Agreement.
  • - In the case of claiming priority:
  • - The certified copy of the priority application / registration including the priority date and number
  • - Following documents need not be submitted initially while filing of the trademark application, but to be requested upon requirement of the Turkish Patent Institute: 
  • - A certified copy of the Home Registration Certificate from Home Patent Office; or
  • - Activity Certificate attesting the trading/serving activity of the applicant issued by Chamber of Commerce/Industry or an Extract from the Commercial Register.

Power of Attorney and Home Registration Document (or Activity Certificate/Extract from the Commercial Register) may be filed at a later date or after the grant decision is received. 

 

Above mentioned documents need to be supplied with an English translation if the original is in another language.

The main legislation pertaining to the protection and registration of Industrial Designs in Turkey is Decree-Law No. 554 which is in force as from June 27, 1995. Classification system globalized as similar to the legislation and the industrial designs begin to be classified under International Classification of Locarno. With the new legislation, industrial designs are only being examined formally regardless of examination on novelty. Unless an opposition/objection arises during the period of publication, industrial designs are registered

Design Search in Turkey

Please Contact Us   for a search by the name of applicant among all the industrial designs in the Turkish Patent Institute’s database and get extensive information about the registrability of your industrial design in Turkey regarding the registration criteria.

Design Registration in Turkey

 

An industrial design application in Turkey is filed by your Turkish IP Attorney upon receipt of the Required Documents. Application form to be filed to the Turkish Patent Institute will reflect the necessary particulars you have provided.

Once a design application is filed, the TPI accepts the application and publishes it for possible oppositions. Natural or legal persons may oppose to the registration of a design application within six months of the publication of the design in the Official Industrial Designs Bulletin as far as the novelty and the individual character of the said design(s) are concerned.

If no opposition is filed during publication, an official notification regarding the registration decision of the Turkish Patent Institute is received and the industrial design registration certificate is issued which is to be checked and forwarded to you immediately upon receipt from the Turkish Patent Institute and protection survives five years as from the filing date.

Please Contact Us for detailed information about our industrial design filing costs in Turkey

Design Renewal in Turkey

The protection of a registered design in Turkey survives five years as from the filing date of the design application. 



A registered design in Turkey can be protected for a maximum term of 25 years on the condition that the extension fees are paid for consecutive periods of 5 years. An application for renewal in Turkey must be filed during the last 6 months preceding the expiration of the protection period. If an application is not filed within the above mentioned six month period, the industrial design may still be renewed within the 6 months following the expiration date, by paying a fine. 

Required Documents For Filing An Industrial Design Application

Name and address of the applicant;

-  Name and address of the inventor;

- Prints of the representations (preferably not exceeding 80 x 80 mm)

- The Power of Attorney, simply signed/executed by the applicant, notarization or legalization is not required (Legalization of the Power of Attorney is only required for actions such as voluntary cancellation, withdrawal, recordal of changes, or deletion of goods);

In case of claiming priority:

-  The certified copy of the priority application / registration including the priority date and number. (needs to be supplied with an English translation if the original is in another language)

INTELLECTUAL PROPRETY ACQUISITIONS

Acar IP, provides clients with an anonymous third–party intellectual property acquisition service in Turkey.

 

We offer a cost–effective way of putting you back in touch with lost, compromised or stolen intellectual property, such as domain names, trademarks or company names. The service can also eliminate opposition to a new brand by acquiring a potentially conflicting or similar mark.

 

Our experienced team manages the end–to–end process from initial enquiries, negotiations and acquisition, to the final transfer – and we liaise with our clients so that they are always in control.

 

Our IP acquisition service has three key areas:

•  Domain Names
•  Trade Marks
•  Company Names

 

ACAR IP offers a fixed–fee pricing structure for the acquisition of an intellectual property (IP) asset – at a greatly reduced price than can be achieved by a direct approach, or by undertaking the standard legal routes (such as the ICANN dispute resolution service for domains).

 

Acar IP, has been involved in the covert purchase of domain names on behalf of many brand owners, and has a high success rate in negotiating with registrants all over the world – including territories where a physical address is required.

Intellectual Property rights now can also be protected in customs in Turkey. The right holders easily suspend counterfeit products in our customs with the amendment of the law no. 5911 made by council of Ministers.

Moreover, in case of there is no request but formal proofs of infringing of intellectual property of aforesaid product, in order to give time right holders to apply to the customs office, administration of customs will detain to those products for three days or customs transactions thereof will be suspended. Those products that customs transactions are suspended or detained will be destructed or given back to owner after making changes on their attributions.

Customs administration may request warrantee from the owner at the rate of product’s price in order to prevent malfeasance or to secure the rights of importer and the public.

Provisions of law no. 5911 will not be implemented to goods brought by passengers and non-commercial goods as well as souvenirs fall within the boundaries of customs duty exemption.

The provision of 103 of the same law is arranging the terms of application. Hereunder, the request for detaining or suspending the customs transactions of goods that infringe the intellectual property rights will be made electronically to the customs administration with the “Application Form That Set Customs Office into Action Concerning the Infringing of the Intellectual Property Rights in Customs”. In case of the right owner is domiciled abroad; operations can be done by a representative settled in Turkey.

In the application form, an accurate and detailed technical description of the concerning goods, any specific information about the type or pattern of fraud, as well as name and address information of representative determined by the right holders have to indicated. Additionally, right holder has to present a document that proves the rights of goods belong to him.

The amendment of the law no. 5911 imposes an obligation to custom office of examining the application and informing the applicant within the 30 working days from the date of application.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY INVESTIGATIONS

Acar IP also specializes in providing Intellectual Property investigations for brand owners, Law firms and Trade Mark Attorneys. 

We provide clients with the assistance to protect their brands and to ensure that prior to launching a brand they are not going to infringe anyone else's IP rights in Turkey.

We undertake many different types of investigation and research projects that are tailor made for clients, although most of our work falls into the following categories:

Anti Counterfeiting Investigations in Turkey

Investigations to obtain evidence and identify individuals, groups and entities at the source of counterfeit or infringing products.

Verification of Use Enquiries in Turkey

Investigations to establish the use of a registered trademark in the Turkey, EU or worldwide. Also known as a trademark in use or non use investigation. 

Company Investigations in Turkey

Investigations that will provide information on the trading activities, size and scope on any given company (Limited or not).

Parallel Trade Investigations in Turkey

Investigations to identify the source of diverted product and unauthorized internal activity.

Common Law Searches in Turkey  

Research investigations to establish the common law rights associated with a particular mark or phrase.

Trade Fair Monitoring in Turkey

Acar Patent, can conduct surveys of trade shows to establish infringement of products or to obtain supply chain infringements.

Internet Investigations in Turkey

Investigations to establish the details of individual or entities behind a website and the scope of their activities. 

Sample Purchases and Signage Photographs in Turkey

Acar Patent, can conduct anonymous sample purchases of products from companies and websites throughout the world. 

The Copyright Law No. 5846 of 1951 amended by Law No. 5101 on 3 December 2004 is the main legislation concerning copyright protection in Turkey. The administrative procedure for copyright formalities is implemented by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, specifically by the General Directorate of Copyright and Cinematography. However, copyright enforcement is effected by the judicial authorities.

 

In order the protection to be effective, the work of art should be original and include personal efforts, innovation and new arrangement and the work enjoying copyright protection should bear the characteristics and particulars of its author.

 

The copyright protection in Turkey supplies economic and moral rights to the owners. Economic rights give the author the right to reproduce, adapt, communicate, distribute, broadcast or otherwise dispose of the work. Moral rights allow the author to represent the work to the public, give a name to the work, put his or her name on the work and prohibit modification of the work.

 

 

Scientific and Literature Works

In accordance with clause 2 of Law No. 5846 on Intellectual and Artistic Works;

1- Art works stated through language and writing in any manner and, computer software stated in any manner and, preparation designs thereof provided that they lead to a software at next stage; 

2- Any dances, written choreographic works, pantomimes and similar tacit stage works.

3- Photographic works in any technical and scientific nature not bearing an aesthetic quality, any maps, plans, projects, layouts, drawings, models etc. related to geography and topography, any architectural and urban designs and projects, architectural models, industrial, environmental and stage designs and projects,

 

are assessed within scientific and literature works.

 

Including ideas and principles forming the basis of interface thereof, any ideas and principles generating the basis of any element of a computer software shall not be deemed as a work of art. 

 

 

Documents Needed to Apply for Entry-Registration in Turkey

           

1) Application Form for Scientific and Literature Works Entry-Registration, completely filled out and all pages signed by applicant


2) Letter of Commitment stating that according to the regulation, the applicant is the owner of applied Works of art and in the event of any proof contrary to this, applicant undertakes to face any and all legal and penal liabilities  

3) Two digital copies (such as DVD, VCD, Audio CD and CD Rom) of the work of art, one or more digital photos taken in minimum values within DVD media of work of art, illustrating entire characteristics of applied work without causing any demur shall be submitted.

 

4) Power of Attorney granted to our Company,

File Format                   : Tagged Image File Format (.tiff)

Resolution                   : minimum 600 dpi

 

Fine Art Works

 

In accordance with article 4 of Law No. 5846 on Intellectual and Fine Art Works;

 
1. Oil paint and watercolor paintings; any drawings, patterns, pastels, gravures, calligraphy, ornaments, curettage, carved designs, inlay or similar works drawn and fixed via mines, stones, wood or other materials and, serigraphy, 


2. Sculptures, relieves and engravings, 

 


3. Architectural works,


4. Handwork, small art works, miniatures and decorative art works as well as textile and fashion designs,


5. Photographic works and slides,


6. Graphical works,


7. Caricature works,


8. Any typings, 
bearing an aesthetic value,


Usage of layouts, drawings, models, designs and similar works as industrial models and figures do not impact being in the quality of intellectual and art works.

 

 

Documents Needed to Apply for Entry-Registration in Turkey

 

1) Application Form for Fine Art Works Entry-Registration, completely filled out and all pages signed by applicant,

 

2) Letter of Commitment stating that according to the regulation, the applicant is the owner of applied Works of art and in the event of any proof contrary to this, applicant undertakes to face any and all legal and penal liabilities,

3) Two digital copies (such as DVD, VCD, Audio CD and CD Rom) of the work of art, one or more digital photos taken in minimum values within DVD media of work of art, illustrating entire characteristics of applied work without causing any demur

4) Power of Attorney granted to our Company,

 

shall be submitted.
 

 

File Format                   : Tagged Image File Format (.tiff) 
Resolution                    : minimum 600 Dpi

 

 

Musical Works

 

Any sort of verbal and non-verbal compositions are musical works. 

The owner of the work other than productions having musical works may optionally carry out entry-registration.

 

The productions having musical work shall be subject to obligatory entry-registration and, phonogram producers who realize initial detection of sounds shall execute said process. 

 

 

Documents Needed to Apply for Entry-Registration in Turkey

 

1) Application Form for Musical Works Entry-Registration, completely filled out and all pages signed by applicant,

 

2) Letter of Commitment stating that according to the regulation, the applicant is the owner of applied Works of art and in the event of any proof contrary to this, applicant undertakes to face any and all legal and penal liabilities, 

3) Two digital copies (such as DVD, VCD, Audio CD and CD Rom) of the work of art,

 

4) Power of attorney granted to our Company

 

 

Registration of Computer Software and Database

The final status of a group code written in compliance with any programming language rules and transformed into machine language is called computer software. All computers function via software. For instance Windows is an operating system while ETA is a bookkeeping software and AutoCAD is a drawing software. Any software has its own rules, codes and parameters. Software facilitates our lives.

 

Today, information production has boosted in all fields. Systematic and rapid access to in-computer saved data, updating, handling and remote access opportunities are available thanks to database software.  

 

Database systems are the operating parts of computer systems used within a wide range of areas from banking to telecommunication, from army forces to universities and from municipalities to conglomerates. 

 

Computer software and databases are the brains of data systems and, smooth our lives as well as business when efficiently utilized. 

 

For protection of softwares, which are being developed under extensive efforts and investments, the certificate of registration obtained from ministry of Culture and Tourism has great importance

 

 

Required Documents

1) Notarized Power of Attorney: Shall be notarized by signator(y)ies.

2) Letter of Commitment: Shall be executed by owner of work. No notarization required.

3) Copy of Artwork:

 

 

  • For Computer Software;

Below listed information shall be submitted in duplicate within “text” format and in “Unicode” characters (such as DVD or CD-ROM)
 

A) With regard to computer software that are not trade secrets, whether it is publicly available or not, a reproduced copy containing entire determinant characteristics of said software (initial twenty five and final twenty five pages of source code; all pages, if lower than fifty), together with special mark, if any, by being visible without a further tool,     
     

 

B) With regard to computer software that contain a trade secret, source code by initial and final twenty-five pages source code blocked, or initial and final ten pages without any block, or, initial and final twenty five pages of object code and any consecutive ten or more pages of source code, or, for software less than fifty pages, entire source code by trade secrets being blocked,
 

 

C) With reference to reengineered computer software, in case amendments are placed in first and last twenty pages, any one of the options listed below at paragraph 2; if not, twenty pages of the source code containing amendments by being not blocked, or, fifty pages containing the amendments by not  being blocked.

 

  • For databases;

2 reproduced digital copies (such as DVD, CD-Rom) of below information shall be submitted in “XML” format in duplicate.
 

A) With regard to single file databases (data records on single subject), the first and last twenty five pages, if not available, the first and last twenty five data records,

 

B) With regard to multiple file databases (separate and different data records), fifty data records from each or entire files, whichever is less; if not available, fifty pages or entire data records,

 

C) With regard to reengineered databases (single or multiple file), fifty pages and records illustrating arrangements, or, if less than fifty pages, entire sections arranged, all sections and password definition for encoded databases.

 

  • Assignment

In case any entry registration application for computer software and databases are filed and a relevant protection request is put forth, other persons or organizations may benefit from said material rights. For this purpose utility and assignment action takes place. 
 

Therefore, by assignment entry application, other persons and organizations being agreed shall have the right to use those software and databases.

Please find below the necessary documents for application to register utility and assignment authorities on said material rights: 

 

1) Online application form about assignment available on our website to be filled out,


2) Letter of Commitment; Hardcopy shall be printed and required blanks shall be filled out and signed.


3) In case parties or one of those are real person, a copy of identity card; in case of a legal person, copy of trade registration certificate,


4) Circular of signature for signatory,


5) Software extract digitally saved within a media such as DVD, VCD, Audio CD, CD Rom (in the event of a registered and entered art work or production, no sample submit related to said art work or production is essential).


6) Power of Attorney; shall be printed out and notarized.

Upon online application for assignment entry through our website, necessary documents should be forwarded to us.

Domain Names

A domain name can be registered from one to 5 years where upon completion of the protection period it can be renewed from one to 5 years with the payment of the respective renewal fee.Companies, which are not actively condufsdcting business in our jurisdiction, can register domain name since no local presence is mandatory. Noncitizens of the Republic of Turkey may register a domain name; there is no need for physical existence.

 

The administration of the country code top level domain of “com.tr” is handled by the Middle EastTechnical University (METU) in Turkey.  Please Contact Us   for the application of the top level domain name registrations in Turkey.

 

 

New Plant Varieties

Acar Intellectual Property assists clients from drafting the application till registration of plant varieties.

 

In Turkey, The Law No: 5042 pertaining to the Plant Breeder's Right has entered into force on January 15, 2004 and the registration proceedings have been carried out by the General Directorate of Protection and Control which is authorized body operating under Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs.

 

With the Plant Breeder's Rights Act, it is possible for plant breeders' to legally protect new varieties of reproduced plants. In order to obtain protection the plant variety should be new, distinctive, stable and uniform.

 

Please Contact Us to receive a cost estimate.

 

Integrated Circuit Topographies

In Turkey, the current regulation is based on the Act No. 5147 inforce as from April 30, 2004 and on its Implementing Regulation pertaining to the protection of the integrated circuit topographies in Turkey.

 

The object of said Act is to protect the integrated circuit topographies in with the aim to ensure a situation of competition and industrial development in this field.

 

Protection of integrated circuit topographies starts with the application on condition that the application is filed within two years from the date when the integrated circuit topography has been firstly put on the market with the aim of commerce in Turkey or abroad by the right owner or the third person with his consent in situations that mentioned date when it is put on the market or it is not put on the market as commercial and the protection is finished with the expiration of 10th year as of the filing date.

 

Please Contact Us to receive more information and a cost estimate.


LG Chem

KT & G

Jetyd

Indevco

Hero MotoCorp